If you are interested just in detecting the existence of those special characters, you can do something like this - I have inserted only a few of the characters in your list in the like clause, you will need to insert them all.
DECLARE @string VARCHAR(32) = 'abcdr:x';
WHEN @string LIKE '%[\/:?]%' THEN 'Special chars exist'
ELSE 'No special chars found'
ENDIf you need more information, what are the kinds of information you need?